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Fard Parts before the Salat:
1. Body has to be clean of all sorts of impurities.
2. Garments should be clean and pure.
3. Place of salat should be clean.
4. Covering of Satr.
5. The right time for salat.
6. Facing the Qiblah.
7. Having the Niyyah(intention) to offer salat.
The Niyyah (intention) can be said in a number of ways but it must include:
- Time of Salat e.g., Salat-ul-Fajr
- Name and number of rakahs e.g., 4 Fard or 2 sunnah
- (Your Salaah is ) performed for the Sake of Allah
- And that (you) directly face towards the Ka’ba
An example of Niyyah:
“I intend to perform Salaat-ul-Fajr, 2 Rakaahs Sunnat-ur-Rasulllulah, for the Sake of Allah, facing Ka’ba Sahrif”
Fard Parts During the Salat
1. To begin salat with Takbeer Tahrima.
2. Qiyam in every rakah.
3. Qirat (in two rakah of Fard, and all rakahs of Sunnah, Wajib, and Nafl)
4. Ruku in every rakah.
5. Two Sijdahs in every rakah.
6. Qa’adah Akhirah (Last sitting in any prayer, for the recitation of Tasha’hud, Salawat and Du’a)
7. Salam (To end the salat).
1. To recite Surah Al- Fatiha in every rakah
2. Recite a portion of the Quran in the first two rakah of Fard and in every rakah of other salats after Fatiha. At least three consecutive verses from the Holy Qur’an
3. To observe sequence.
4. To observe Qauma (Standing erect after bowing).
5. To observe Jalsah (Sitting between prostration).
6. To observe Qa’ada Ola.(Sitting posture after 2 rak’ahs of prayer consisting of 3 or 4 rak’ahs, for reciting the Tasha’hud)
7. To recite Tasha’hud at least once in the two rak’ahs.
8. To raise hands with Takbeer for Qunut in the last rakah of Witr.
9. To pronounce additional Takbeers in Eid salats.
1. To raise hands and turn palms towards Qibla before Takbeer Tahrimah. For males to ear lobes. For female shoulder level.
2. To keep the head erect while pronouncing Takbeer Tahrimah.
3. To tie hands properly after Takbeer Tahrimah.
4. To recite Thana.
5. To pronounce Taawwuz.
6. To recite Bismillah before Fatiha.
7. To recite only Fatiha in the 3rd and 4th rakah of Fard.
8. To recite Ameen quietly after Fatiha.
9. To pronounce tasbih in ruku and sajdah at least thrice.
10. To place the knees first, then two hands, then nose and at last forehead in sajdah.
Acts Nullify a Prayer
2. Doing any three acts in succession (Amle-Kathir)
3. Emission of impure matter from the body or the annulment of Wudu in any way
4. Drinking or eating during prayer
5. Turing the chest away from the direction of Ka’ba
When to perform:
If a worshipper omits any of the essentials of prayer or suspects that he or she performed more than the required number of Rukus, Sajdahs, Rak’ats etc
How to perform:
He or she should perform one Salam to right and then two Sajdahs after reciting Tasha’hud in Qa’adah Akhirah, should again recite Tasha’hud and then after Salwat and Du’a and then complete the prayer with the usual Salams.
Qasr Prayers (The Curtailing of Obligatory Prayers)
- When one is travelling with the intention of proceeding 57.5 miles (92.53 km) or over from the home (principal residence).
- When one does not intend to prolong his or her stay there for 15 days or more.
How to perform:
- Instead of 4 fard rak’ahs, perform 2 rak’ahs.
- No change for 2 or 3 obligatory rak’ahs of Fajr and Maghrib respectively.
Note: If you intend to stay away from your home for more than 15 days then you are not a traveller so after arriving at your destination, you don’t need to do Qasr.